Righthaven, a Nevada holding company, was founded in early 2010, for the sole purpose of filing copyright lawsuits on behalf of its clients, news content owners (such as Stephens Media). Its methods involved Righthaven scouring the Internet for republication of news articles and photos, suing the website hosting the infringing content (seeking monetary damages and the transfer of the infringer’s domain name), and then extending a settlement offer. Lawsuits filed by Righthaven have been brought against a wide variety of online publishers, including bloggers, political campaigns, nonprofits, and website operators — almost always without notice or DMCA takedown. Many cases settled swiftly, totaling an estimated $400,000 in aggregate settlement payment. Righthaven’s founders claim they created the company in order to fight and deter “copyright theft” by bloggers and news aggregators online. Their aggressive enforcement strategies, including suing noncommercial bloggers and nonprofits who cannot afford to litigate, have also garnered much criticism, particularly from the Electronic Frontier Foundation. The critics have described the company as a “copyright troll” and a “settlement factory.”
In the past few months, Righthaven has suffered serious setbacks in the courts. In Righthaven v. Realty One Group, Inc. (D. Nev. Oct. 19, 2010), Righthaven sued a blogger for republication of 8 sentences from a 30-sentence Las Vegas Review-Journal article. In a rare decision, the court granted the blogger’s fair use defense on a motion to dismiss. The court noted that the blogger quoted a small percentage of the source article and his “use of the copyrighted material was likely to have little to no effect on the market for the copyrighted news article.” Another example is Righthaven v. DiBiase (D. Nev. April 15, 2011) in which Righthaven sought to have DiBiase’s domain name transferred to them. In this case, the Court rejected transfer of the domain name stating that “Congress has never expressly granted plaintiffs in copyright infringement cases the right to seize control over the defendant’s website domain.”
Most notably, Righthaven suffered a particularly hard blow recently in Righthaven v. Democratic Underground (D. Nev. June 14, 2011). In that case, the agreement between Righthaven and its clients, called a “Strategy Alliance Agreement,” was unsealed. The agreement purported to assign copyrights to Righthaven for the purpose of filing infringement lawsuits, while exclusively licensing back all rights to the client, with Righthaven maintaining no rights, except the right to use. The judge dismissed the lawsuit on the ground that Righthaven had no standing to sue, stating that a “copyright owner cannot assign a bare right to sue,” essentially rejecting Righthaven’s business model. Over three-dozen other cases filed by Righthaven are being held up on appeal over the same issue.
Is it the end of Righthaven? Most signs point to yes. In the past two months, Righthaven has stopped filing new lawsuits, let cases lapse due to procedural defects and laid off a number of employees. Steve Gibson, CEO of Righthaven, stated they are awaiting the outcome of numerous appellate rulings in the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals before resuming their efforts.
Regardless of what happens to Righthaven, this line of cases is particularly instructive in at least three ways: first, they have allowed the emergence of blog-specific copyright cases and an expansion of the fair use doctrine, which Righthaven intentionally helped create (See Cobalt’s prior post on the topic: The Emerging Blog Specific Copyright Cases). Second, these cases are illustrative of how copyright owners from the traditional news world are continuing to struggle over how to best protect and monetize their content. Finally, the cases raise particularly interesting questions of copyright law relating to standing to sue and the validity of copyright assignments, for which we are awaiting clarification from the Ninth Circuit